1. Hooded Mergansers
Several hooded merganser drakes gather around a single or group of hens in a bid for their attention. They perform a number of displays such as raising their white head-crests, head-shaking, “head-throwing,” head-pumping and uttering frog-like croaks in their attempts to woo the females.
2. Common Goldeneye
The common goldeneye male will stretch his head forward and then snap it quickly backwards, pointing his bill upward while uttering a shrill, two-noted cry. He then rapidly kicks his feet backwards and splashes water high into the air.
3. Ruddy Duck
The ruddy duck male puts on a colourful display for the willing hen. He will “rush” past a female several times with his head and tail lowered. He then stops suddenly to cock his tail feathers upwards while fanning them out. And just as quickly, he begins to rapidly drum his bill against his chest, forcing air out from his chest feathers to cause “bubbling.” He then throws his head forward and calls out to the female.
4. Green-winged teal
Green-winged teal males are very social in their courtship. Several will attempt to woo a female using a head-up-tail-up display, where both head and tail are raised simultaneously in a very quick display broadside to the female. This display is common in several dabbler species including the pintail. Green-winged teals will also try to attract a potential mate by raising their heads and making loud “burps.”
5. Western grebes
Western grebes have one of the most elegant and elaborate displays of courtship, especially during the “rushing ceremony.” Once a mating pair is established, both the male and female will leap from the water in unison, stretch their heads and torsos skywards, pull their wings back and begin to “rush” across the water by rapidly kicking their feet just below the surface. The dance is complete with a dive back into the water – affirming the union.